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Support Info: If you are a Survivor and need emotional support, a national crisis line is available 24 hours a day, seven days a week: Residential School Survivor Support Line: 1-866-925-4419. Additional Health Support Information: Emotional, cultural, and professional support services are also available to Survivors and their families through the Indian Residential Schools Resolution Health Support Program. Services can be accessed on an individual, family, or group basis.” These & regional support phone numbers are found at https://nctr.ca/contact/survivors/ .
Indigenous peoples’ most progressive hope for his trip was that he would rescind the 1493 Papal Bull and related Doctrine of Discovery,
which served as the historical Church-sanctioned policy rationale for
destroying and subverting Native culture in the so-called New World. But
he has not done that — and even the most idealistic of Indigenous
advocates suspected he would not.
To do that would have
undermined a foundational principle of Christian, colonial and
capitalistic ideology, and few contemporary world systems seem prepared
for the possible ramifications — financial, social and otherwise.
Papal Bull "Inter Caetera," issued by Pope Alexander VI on May 4, 1493,
played a central role in the Spanish conquest of the New World. The
document supported Spain’s strategy to ensure its exclusive right to the
lands discovered by Columbus the previous year. It established a
demarcation line one hundred leagues west of the Azores and Cape Verde
Islands and assigned Spain the exclusive right to acquire territorial
possessions and to trade in all lands west of that line. All others were
forbidden to approach the lands west of the line without special
license from the rulers of Spain. This effectively gave Spain a monopoly
on the lands in the New World.
The Bull stated that any
land not inhabited by Christians was available to be "discovered,"
claimed, and exploited by Christian rulers and declared that "the
Catholic faith and the Christian religion be exalted and be everywhere
increased and spread, that the health of souls be cared for and that
barbarous nations be overthrown and brought to the faith itself." This
"Doctrine of Discovery" became the basis of all European claims in the
Americas as well as the foundation for the United States’ western
expansion. In the US Supreme Court in the 1823 case Johnson v. McIntosh,
Chief Justice John Marshall’s opinion in the unanimous decision held
"that the principle of discovery gave European nations an absolute right
to New World lands." In essence, American Indians had only a right of
occupancy, which could be abolished.
Questions abound: Will the papal bull ever be rescinded? If so, what
will that mean? Will the Pope make a similar visit to the U.S. and to
Latin America, which both experienced similar atrocities to the
Indigenous peoples of Canada? Will anything really change as a result of
this sorry snapshot?
The historic visit by Pope Francis to Canada this week drew thousands of
Indigenous people from across Turtle Island to hear the apology they
had been expecting for the Catholic Church’s role in the ugly
residential school history.
ICT’s special correspondent Miles Morrisseau, Métis Nation, based in Manitoba, Canada, was among them. He witnessed the apology
in Maskwacis, Alberta, on the grounds of the former Ermineskin Indian
Residential School. He was there for the applause, for the tears and the
emotional protest song.
And he was there to gather reaction
to the long-awaited penance, from tribal leaders who gathered and the
First Nations, Métis and Inuit people who made a pilgrimage to see the
He followed the Pope to Lac Ste. Anne where the Pontiff sat silently
looking toward the lake before blessing the crowd with its sacred
waters. And he was there to talk to the Cree woman whose tearful song on Monday brought an outpouring around the world.
ICT National Correspondent Mary Annette Pember also joined the coverage, gathering perspectives
from Indigenous people in the United States who hope the Pope will make
a similar “penitence pilgrimage” to apologize for the U.S. boarding
school system. She explored Indigenous demands that the Catholic Church return the tens of thousands of sacred artifacts stored in Vatican museums.
ICT gave readers the Indigenous perspective of a story that is very personal for many of us..
Here’s a round-up of ICT’s coverage of the papal visit:
The religious organizations that operated the schools — the Anglican Church of Canada, Presbyterian Church in Canada, United Church of Canada, Jesuits of English Canada and some Catholic groups — in 2015 expressed regret for the “well-documented” abuses. The Catholic Church has never offered an official apology, something that Trudeau and others have repeatedly called for.
Almost 7000 bodies found and not one member of the church has been arrested. The names are out there. The church must be held accountable. #NeverForget#EveryChildMatters
The Justice Department is protecting the names of many perpetrators of abuse of Indigenous children. We need a special independent prosecutor who can force the government and church to turn over the documents. There can be no reconciliation without justice.@MumilaaqQaqqaqpic.twitter.com/5TL6OxKM5O
Veronica, we adult adoptees are thinking of you today and every day. We will be here when you need us. Your journey in the adopted life has begun, nothing can revoke that now, the damage cannot be undone. Be courageous, you have what no adoptee before you has had; a strong group of adult adoptees who know your story, who are behind you and will always be so.
Did you know?
Did you know?
New York’s 40-year battle for OBC access ended when on January 15 2020, OBCs were opened to ALL New York adoptees upon request without restriction. In only three days, over 3,600 adoptees filed for their record of birth. The bill that unsealed records was passed 196-12.
According to the 2020 Census, 3.6% of Colorado's population is American Indian or Alaska Native, at least in part, with the descendants of at least 200 tribal nations living in the Denver metro area.
Diane Tells His Name
Lost Birds on Al Jazeera Fault Lines
click to read and listen about Trace, Diane, Julie and Suzie
As the single largest unregulated industry in the United States, adoption is viewed as a benevolent action that results in the formation of “forever families.” The truth is that it is a very lucrative business with a known sales pitch. With profits last estimated at over $1.44 billion dollars a year, mothers who consider adoption for their babies need to be very aware that all of this promotion clouds the facts and only though independent research can they get an accurate account of what life might be like for both them and their child after signing the adoption paperwork.
Original Birth Certificate Map in the USA
Why tribes do not recommend the DNA swab
Rebecca Tallbear entitled: “DNA, Blood, and Racializing the Tribe”, bearing out what I only inferred:
Detailed discussion of the Bering Strait theory and other scientific theories about the population of the modern-day Americas is beyond the scope of this essay. However, it should be noted that Indian people have expressed suspicion that DNA analysis is a tool that scientists will use to support theories about the origins of tribal people that contradict tribal oral histories and origin stories. Perhaps more important,the alternative origin stories of scientists are seen as intending to weaken tribal land and other legal claims (and even diminish a history of colonialism?) that are supported in U.S. federal and tribal law. As genetic evidence has already been used to resolve land conflicts in Asian and Eastern European countries, this is not an unfounded fear.
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