Bureau of Indian Affairs’ Final Rule: FAQs on ICWA ProceedingsSOURCE: Bureau of Indian Affairs
SUBJECT: Child Welfare
YEAR PRODUCED: 2016
ICWA, enacted by Congress in 1978, governs State child-custody proceedings in multiple ways, including: (1) by recognizing Tribal jurisdiction over decisions for their Indian children; (2) by establishing minimum Federal standards for the removal of Indian children from their families; (3) by establishing preferences for placement of Indian children with extended family or other Tribal families; and (4) by instituting protections to ensure that birth parents’ voluntary relinquishments of their children are truly voluntary.
The recent rule incorporates child-welfare best practices and promotes uniformity in State ICWA proceedings—no matter the child welfare worker, judge, or state handling the case—while still taking into account the unique circumstances of each child.
The 11-page document includes questions such as
- What, specifically, does this rule do?
- How does the rule clarify the applicability of ICWA?
- How does the rule address the so-called “existing Indian family (EIF)” exception?
- What are the rule’s requirements for emergency proceedings?
- What are the rule’s requirements for transferring child-custody proceedings to Tribal court?
- What are the rule’s requirements for qualified expert witnesses?
- How do I find a qualified expert witness with knowledge of the Tribe’s social and cultural standards? What are the rule’s requirements for placement preferences?
- Does the rule allow State courts to depart from the placement preferences if a child has bonded with a nonpreferred placement?
- What if no preferred placements are available? How does the rule protect a birth parent’s privacy in voluntary proceedings?
- Does this rule affect a parent’s right to choose who adopts their child in voluntary adoptions? ..